Dr. Madhukar Rai General Physician in Varanasi

Dr. Madhukar Rai

General Physician, Varanasi



Dr. Madhukar Rai is an experienced and Expert Professor of Medicine and Physician specialising in Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and Endocrinology. 

Presently, he is designated as a Professor and HOD (Department of Medicine) at the Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University (BHU) in Varanasi.

He has finished his MBBS in 1989 and went to do his MD in General Medicine in 1989 and followed by a DM in Endocrinology in 1991, all from BHU. 

By attending a large number of training programmes, workshops, conferences and symposia in India and abroad, he gained much knowledge and expertise in this field.

He worked as a lecturer till 1992 and moved up from lecture to senior lecturer. He is currently working as a Professor since 2007.

He is also a member of research projects funded by esteemed organisations such as the National Institute of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the Infectious Disease Research Institute, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the European Commission and the World Health Organisation.

Dr. Madhukar Rai has published over 50 research papers in national and international journals and also a Co-Editor of a book on Paediatric Endocrinology.


  • General Medicine

Practice Information

Achievements & Contributions

  • Co-Investigator: Field Evaluation of novel diagnostic tests for Visceral Leishmaniasis: Rapid Sialic Acid Chromatographic Test (SAC Test) vs RK39 Immunochromatographic Test. World Health Organisation/Tropical Diseases Research. [Ongoing]
  • Co-Investigator: A phase I, open-label, dose-escalating study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the Leish-111f + MPL-SE vaccine (Recombinant Three-Antigen
  • Leishmania Polyprotein with Adjuvant MPL-SE) in healthy adults in India. Infectious Diseases Research Institute/Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. [Ongoing]
  • Co-Investigator: Efficacy, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in the prevention of Kala-azar. European Commission. Ongoing.
  • Co-Investigator: An evaluation of health system in delivering health care in Visceral Leishmaniasis. World Health Organisation/Tropical Diseases Research. [Ongoing]
  • A phase III multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of injectable Paromomycin in patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis.
  • Field evaluation of novel diagnostic tests for Visceral Leishmaniasis: Freeze dried DAT, rK39, rK26 dipsticks and KAtex (Latex Agglutination Urine Test).
  • Comparative evaluation of PCR primers in the diagnosis of VL and PKDL. ICMR.
  • Role of regulatory T cells in the pathogenesis of VL and PKDL in India. WHO.
  • A multi-centre phase I clinical trial of Miltefosine in the treatment of PKDL. WHO.
  • Paromomycin in the treatment of Indian VL. Institute for One World Health.
  • PhD Thesis under supervision: Genetic susceptibility to infection in Visceral Leishmaniasis.
  • PhD Thesis under supervision: Immuno-epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis.
  • Best Paper of the Session Award. Tropical Disease Session of the 53rd Annual Conference of Association of Physicians of India. Bangalore.1998
  • Best Paper of the Session Award. Tropical Disease Session of the 55th Annual Conference of Association of Physicians of India. Jaipur.2000
  • Dr. Anil K Seth Award. Annual Conference of Endocrine Society of India. Chennai.2000
  • Certificates of Proficiency: Second position in Anatomy. IMS, BHU.1981
  • Certificates of Proficiency. Distinction in Biochemistry and Forensic Medicine. IMS, BHU.1981-83
  • Co-Editor of Book: Paediatrics Endocrinology. CME on Paediatrics. Dec. 1998.
  • Text Book Chapter (In Press): Drug Resistance in Leishmania - Clinical Perspective. In: Antimicrobial Drug Resistance: Principles and Practice for the Clinic and Bench. Humana Press Inc. New Jersey USA.
  • Rai M, Shukla RC, Verma DN, Bajpai HS, Gupta SK. Intracerebral haemorrhage following scorpion bite. Neurology (Minneap). 1990: 40: 1801.
  • Rai M, Agrawal JK, Kumar VS, Singh SK. Clinical Congenital Anorchia in three siblings. Clinical Paediatrics. 1994;33:367-369.
  • Rai M, Agrawal JK, Kumar VS, Singh SK, Saraf SK, Kumar M, Shukla HS. Familial Childhood Parathyroid Adenoma. J Paed Surg. 1994;29:15030-15031.
  • Singh SK, Singh SK, Chaturvedi R, Chaudhari M, Rai M, Singh SK, Agrawal AJ. Growth Failure: An unusual clinical presentation. Postgrad Med J. 1999;75:0-2.
  • Sundar S, Agrawal G, Rai M, Makharia MK, Murray HW. Treatment of Indian Visceral Leishmaniasis with single or daily infusions of low dose Liposomal Amphotericin B: Randomised Trial. BMJ. 2001;323: 419-422.
  • Sundar S, Rai M. Laboratory diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 2002;9:951-958.
  • Sundar S, Rai M. Advances in the treatment of Leishmaniasis. Curr Opin Infect Disease. 2002;15:593-598.
  • Sundar S, Sahu M, Mehta H, Gupta A, Kohli U, Rai M, Berman JD, Murray HW. Non-invasive management of Visceral Leishmaniasis: Clinical application of diagnosis by K39 Antigen strip testing. Clinical Infectious Disease. 2002;35:581-586.
  • Sundar S, Mehta H, Suresh AV, Singh SP, Rai M, Murray HW. Amphotericin B treatment for Indian Visceral Leishmaniasis: conventional vs lipid formulations. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2004:38:377-383.
  • Chakrabarti P, Gupta R, Mishra A, Rai M, Singh VP, Dash D. Spectrum of ß-Thalassemia mutation in North Indian states: A ß-Thalassemia trait with two mutations in cis: Clinical Biochemistry. 2005:38:76-578.
  •  Sundar S, Rai M. Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis. Expert Opin. Pharmacother. 2005:6: 2821-2829.
  • Attili VSS, Sundar S, Singh VP, Rai M. Validity of existing CD4+ classification in North Indians in predicting immune sStatus. J Infect. 2005:51:41-6.
  • Attili VSS, Singh VP, Rai M, Varma DV, Sundar S. Evaluation of the status of Tuberculosis as part of the clinical case definition of AIDS in India. Postgrad Med J. 2005:31:404-8.
  • Maurya R, Singh RK, Kumar B, Salotra P, Rai M, Sundar S. Evaluation of PCR in the diagnosis and assessment of cure in Indian Kala-Azar. J Clin Micro. 2005: 43:3038-41.
  • Attili SVS, Gulati AK, Singh VP, Varma DV, Rai M, Sundar S. Diarrhea, CD4 counts and enteric infections in a hospital-based cohort of HIV-infected patients around Varanasi, India. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2006, 6:39.
  • Singh SP, Reddy DCS, Rai M, Sundar S. Serious underreporting of Visceral Leishmaniasis through passive case reporting in Bihar, India. Trop Med Intl Health. 2006; 11: 899-905.
  • Sundar S, Jha TK, Thakur CP, Bhattacharya SK, Rai M. Oral Miltefosine for the treatment of Indian Visceral Leishmaniasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006.
  • Sundar S, Maurya R, Singh RK, Bharti K, Chakravarty J, Parekh A, Rai M, Kumar K, Murray HW. Rapid Non-invasive diagnosis in Indian Visceral Leishmaniasis: Comparison of two strip test formats in detection of Anti-K39 antibody. J Clin Microbiol 2006; 44 :251-3.
  • Sundar S, Singh RK, Maurya RS, Kumar B, Chhabra A, Singh V, Rai M. Serological diagnosis of Indian Visceral Leishmaniasis – Direct agglutination test versus rK39 strip test. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006: 100:533-537.
  • Sundar S, Mehta H, Chhabra A, Singh V, Chauhan V, Desjeux P, Rai M. Amphotericin B Colloidal Dispersion (ABCD) in the treatment of Indian Visceral Leishmaniasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2006; 42:608–13.
  • Attili SVS, Singh VP, Reddy BAV, Varma DV, Rai M, Gulati AK, Sundar S. Ocular manifestations and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Retinopathy in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in North India. Asian J Ophthalmol. 2006;8:139-142.
  • Attili SVS, Gulati AK, Singh VP, Varma DV, Rai M, Sundar S. Neurological Manifestation: HIV-infected patients around Varanasi, India. African J of Neurological Sciences. 2006;25:33-39.
  • Kumar P, Raja R, Chauhan V, Rai M, Sundar S. Pseudo-tumour Cerebri as a manifestation of Addison's Disease. Internet J of Endocrinology. 2007;3:1
  • Sundar S, Singh RK, Bimal SK, Gidwani K, Mishra A, Maurya R, Singh SK, Manandhar KD, Boelaert M, Rai M. Comparative evaluation of parasitology and serological tests in the diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in India: A Phase III diagnostic accuracy study. Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12: 284-9.
  • Das ML, Singh SP, Vanlerberghe V, Rijal S, Rai M, Karki P, Sundar S, Boelaert M. Population preference of net texture prior to bed net trial in Kala-Azar endemic areas. Plos Negl Trop Dis. 2007 Dec 12;1(3):e100.
  • Attili SVS, Singh VP, Rai M, Varma DV, Gulati AK, Sundar S. Hematological profile of HIV patients in relation to immune status - a hospital-based cohort from Varanasi, North India. Turk J Hematol. 2008; 25:13-19.
  • Manandhar KD, Yadav TP, Prajapati VK, Kumar S, Rai M, Dube A, Srivastava ON, Sundar S. Antileishmanial activity of Nano-amphotericin B Deoxycholate. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008; 62: 376-80.
  • Sundar S, Chakravarty J, Agarwal D, Shah A, Agrawal N, Rai M. Safety of a pre-formulated Amphotericin B lipid emulsion for the treatment of Indian Kala-Azar. Trop Med Int Health. 2008; 13: 1208–1212.
  • Sundar S, Rai M, Chakravarty J, Agarwal D, Agrawal N, Vaillant M, Olliaro P, Murray HW. New treatment approach in Indian Visceral Leishmaniasis: Single-dose liposomal Amphotericin B followed by short-course oral Miltefosine. Clin Infect Dis. 2008; 47: 1000-1006.
  • Sundar S, Agrawal N, Arora R, Agarwal D, Rai M, Chakravarty J. Short-course Paromomycin treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis in India: 14-day vs 21-day treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2009; 49:914–8.
  • Life Member, Indian Medical Association
  • Life Member, Association of Physicians of India
  • Life Member, Endocrine Society of India
  • Member, Core Group from Medical Sciences. Nano Science and Technology Unit, BHU
  • Scientific Secretary, Annual Conference of the Endocrine Society of India
  • Treasurer, Endocrine Society of India
  • Coordinator for Undergraduate and Post Graduate Examinations of the Department of Medicine
  • Organiser, WHO-sponsored Workshop on GCP.
  • Treasurer, Annual Conference of Nephrology Society of India, North India Chapter. 1993
  • Scientific Secretary, Annual Conference of the Endocrine Society of India. 1998
  • Scientific Secretary, Varanasi Chapter of Association of Physicians of India
  • Member, Governing Body, Association of Physicians of India.
  • Co-Editor of Paediatrics Endocrinology