Gestational Diabetes and Your Baby's Health

Gestational Diabetes and Your Baby's Health

Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy (gestation). Like other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes affects how your cells use sugar (glucose) — your body's main fuel. Gestational diabetes causes high blood sugar that can affect your pregnancy and your baby's health. Any pregnancy complication is concerning, but there's good news. Expectant moms can help control gestational diabetes by eating healthy foods, exercising and, if necessary, using medication. Taking good care of yourself can ensure a healthy pregnancy for you and a healthy start for your baby.

In gestational diabetes, blood sugar usually returns to normal soon after delivery. But if you've had gestational diabetes, you're at risk for future type 2 diabetes. You'll continue working with your health care team to monitor and manage your blood.

How Gestational Diabetes effects your baby's health?

If your blood sugar remains consistently elevated during pregnancy, the excess sugar can pass through your womb to your unborn baby. This can increase your child’s future risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Other health risks associated with gestational diabetes include:


This is a yellow discoloration of your baby's skin caused by bilirubin, a pigment produced when red blood cells break down. Many newborn babies have jaundice, but the condition is more common in babies whose mothers have gestational diabetes. Babies with jaundice may be weak and have trouble feeding. Your baby's blood will be tested for bilirubin. A special light that gets rid of the bilirubin pigment may be used to treat your baby.


The term macrosomia is used to describe a newborn with an excessive birth weight. A baby with macrosomia can experience difficulties during the childbirth process. The most common problem that big babies encounter is damage to the nerves and muscles in their shoulders during vaginal delivery. Your doctor will monitor the size of your baby by performing ultrasound exams throughout your pregnancy. If your doctor is concerned about the size of your baby, a Caesarean section may be recommended.


A condition called "hypoglycemia" or Low blood sugar is dangerous because your baby depends almost exclusively on glucose for energy at the time of birth. Signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include seizures, sluggishness, and difficulty breathing. For this reason, doctors will check your baby's blood glucose right after birth. If the glucose level is low, your baby will be given a sugar solution until the blood levels stabilize.

Gestational Diabetes - Prevention

There are no guarantees when it comes to preventing gestational diabetes — but the more healthy habits you can adopt before pregnancy, the better. If you've had gestational diabetes, these healthy choices may also reduce your risk of having it again in future pregnancies or developing type 2 diabetes down the road.

  • Eat healthy foods: Choose foods high in fiber and low in fat and calories. Focus on fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Strive for variety to help you achieve your goals without compromising taste or nutrition.

  • Keep active: Exercising before and during pregnancy can help protect you against developing gestational diabetes. Aim for 30 minutes of moderate activity on most days of your week. Take a brisk daily walk. Ride your bike. Swim laps. If you can't fit a single 30-minute workout into your busy day, several shorter sessions can do just as much good.

  • Lose excess pounds before pregnancy: Doctors don't recommend weight loss during pregnancy — your body is already working overtime to support your baby's development. But if you're planning to get pregnant, losing extra weight beforehand may help you have a healthier pregnancy. Focus on permanent changes to your eating habits. Motivate yourself by remembering the long-term benefits of losing weight, such as a healthier heart, more energy and improved self-esteem.

But lastly, remember that good nutrition and regular exercise are the best ways to reduce the risk of obesity and diabetes for both you and your child. Be a good example and enjoy a healthy future together.

Reviewed By:

Dr. Kaushal M. Bhavsar (MBBS, MD)

Assistant Professor in Pulmonary Medicine, GMERS Medical College, Ahmedabad