Stoma - Need, Appearance, Types


Stoma derives its meaning from a Greek word that implies opening, be it mouth, nose, or anus. Stoma allows the smooth exiting of the waste from the body. Well, in layman’s language, a stoma is termed as a deliberately made artificial opening in the abdomen; that allows the passing of faeces or urine either from the intestine or from the urinary tract. Due to this operation, the waste is directly excreted from the body through stoma rather than tracing the waste into the digestive system. For the stoma creation on your body, the specialist doctor will pull out the part of either small or large intestine onto the skin’s surface and then, it will be sewn onto an opening in the abdomen.

The Appearance Of The Stoma

In the very beginning, the stoma may look swollen but eventually will shrink in size.

Stoma Usually Looks

  • Being the mucous membrane, it looks round, red and moist.
  • It is 1 or 2 inches wide.
  • It is not at all painful because there is no sensation.

Need For Stoma

There are many reasons that a person is suggested stoma by the doctor. Some of the common reasons include

  • Pelvic Cancer
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
  • Diverticular Disease
  • Incontinence
  • Crohn’s disease

Types Of Stoma

Colostomy

In this stoma operation, a stoma is formed when the colon is brought to the surface of the abdomen of the patient. This type of stoma is created usually on the left side of the abdomen. A stool is generally solid. Two different types of colostomy surgery are


  • End Colostomy

This operation of stoma happens when the patient’s rectum or large bowl has been removed. In this operation, the remaining large bowel is brought to the surface of the abdomen so as to form a stoma. This end colostomy can be either temporary or permanent. In the temporary operation, the diseased part of the bowel is removed and the remaining part of the bowel is set to rest before joining the ends together. The permanent operation is suggested because it is impossible to re-join two parts of the intestine. If done forcibly, it could be proved risky.

  • Loop Colostomy

The bowel of the patient is uplifted to the skin level to align with the stoma rod. It is a temporary type of surgery. It actually consists of two stomas that are joined together.

Ileostomy

For forming the stoma, the part of the patient’s small bowel (ileum) is brought onto the surface of the abdomen. This operation is needed due to the diseased conditions of the end part of the small bowel. This type of stoma is created usually on the right side of the abdomen. An Absence of muscles leads to the formation of stool being fluid. Two different types of ileostomy Surgery Are


  • End Ileostomy

When part of the large bowel is removed then an end ileostomy is made. The end of the patient’s small bowel is brought to the surface of the abdomen to form a stoma. It can be either temporary or permanent. the temporary operation takes place due to the removal of the diseased part of the bowel so that the remaining parts are set to rest before the joining of the ends together. The permanent operation is chosen in circumstances where it involves extreme risk or is impossible to re-join the two parts of the intestine.

  • Loop Ileostomy

The bowel of the patient is uplifted to the skin level to align with the stoma rod. It is a temporary type of surgery. It actually consists of two stomas that are joined together.


Urostomy

A urinary diversion, known as urostomy, is needed when the patient’s bladder or urinary system is damaged or diseased and the passing of urine normally is not possible. Also, termed as an ileal conduit or a Bricker's bladder. On the right-hand side of the abdomen, an isolated part of the intestine is brought onto the surface. From the bladder the ureters are detached first and then to the isolated section of the intestine is reattached. A urostomy pouch to collect the urine is required because this section of the intestine is too small to function as a reservoir.